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October 2015

Volume 1 Issue 2

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Editorial

Uranium Epidemiology

Christopher Busby*

If the illumination of epidemiology is there to identify threats and save lives it is high time its searchlight beam was seriously directed at the element Uranium and its health effects. Uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust, and has been locked up as insoluble ores in most rocks and soils throughout evolutionary history. But after the discovery of radioactivity, the initial rush to extract Radium, and then later the bombs and the energy, a Uranium economy developed. After the 1950s, because of nuclear weapons tests and nuclear energy the quantities of the material released into the biosphere increased enormously.

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Editorial

Inflammation, Infectious Burden and Cancer: an Epidemiological Paradox

Ashok K. Vijh Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. Canada*

There is considerable literature on fundamental studies on the connection between inflammation and cancer. Many cancers are believed to arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. Epidemiological data, however, appear to be difficult to reconcile with these studies on the biology of inflammation and cancer.In most developing countries such as India, populations are subjected to heavy infectious burdens owing to poverty, over-crowding, lack of sanitary facilities and hygienic environment, limited access (specially in the rural areas) to clean water, etc.; the evidence for this is infantile mortality at alarming rates.

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Editorial

Ensuring Smoke-free Schools: a collective responsibility

Olubode A Olufajo*, Adeyinka Adejumo, Nnaemeka E Onyeakusi

Smoking is the number one cause of preventable death in the United States and leads to nearly 6 million annual deaths globally. It is associated with numerous disease conditions including various malignancies, respiratory conditions, and heart disease. Youth are highly susceptible to initiation of smoking because they are at experimental stages of their lives and can easily be influenced by societal norms. It is therefore important to protect them and ensure they can exist in environments free from pro-tobacco influences.

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Editorial

Minority Populations Remain Vulnerable to Adverse Health Outcomes

Evelio Velis*, Graham Shaw

In this editorial we address the connection between the socioeconomic indicators education and poverty, and adverse health outcomes specifically two of the most significant public health concerns currently facing the United States; adverse birth outcomes and obesity. It is evident that there are significant health gaps among racial and ethnic groups and our minority populations are at increased risk of both adverse health outcomes.

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Research Article

Infant and Perinatal Mortality and Stillbirths near Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station in Somerset, 2005-1993; an Epidemiological Investigation of Causation

Christopher Busby*, Mireille de Messieres, Saoirse Morgan

Data from the UK Office for National Statistics for 1993-2005 was employed to examine infant and perinatal mortality, birth sex-ratio and breast cancer mortality rate as indicators of genotoxic effects in populations living both downwind of the Hinkley Point nuclear power station in Somerset UK and adjacent to coastal estuary mud flats which accumulate radioactivity from historic releases of radioactivity. We defined the center of the local contaminated mud bank, as the source of risk. For 1993-98, Trend in Relative Risks (33 infant deaths in 29 wards in 6km rings to 18km from the source) were 1.9, 1.54, 0.81 compared with 0.9 in the rest of 103 wards in the study area. Using Poisson regression with both Distance and Deprivation as covariates, Distance was significant (p = 0.015) but not Deprivation (p = 0.3).

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Editorial

Ebola virus Epidemiology in West Africa

Maria Teresa Mascellino*, De Angelis M, Borgese L

The outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in the forested southeast in Guinea in mid-March 2014 and then spread to the capital Konakry, was first described by Chandler C. who affirmed that up to April of the same year more than 80 people have died. Following these early observations, the scientists tried to understand the mechanism of the onset of emerging infectious diseases in general and specifically of the present zoonosis that was devastating wide regions of West Africa.

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Research Article

Reduced Fertility in Schizophrenia. A Consequence of the Disorder, of Premorbid Personality or Other Factors?

Heinz Häfner*, Peter Propping, Wolfram an der Heiden, Daniel Ropeter

We conducted three subsequent studies in the same semi-urban, semi-rural German population using the same unchanged diagnostic definitions. The overall period covered was about 50 years. Study 1 relied on retrospectively collected data for 1949-50 and follow-up data for 1962-1963, Study 2 on data for 1965-67 and a follow-up in 1978-80 and Study 3 on data for 1987-89 and a follow-up in 1999-2002. At each wave, patients were compared with age- and sex-matched population controls from the study area. In Study 3, based on a population-based sample of first illness episodes of schizophrenia, we also studied at which stage of illness patients’ fertility changed and how their reproductive wishes developed compared with healthy controls.

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Research Article

Factors Associated with the Quality of Drinking Water in the Commune of Adjarra in Benin, 2014

E-M Ouendo*, C Degbey, M Amadou, J Saizonou, M Makoutode

Water is a vital element to the life of living things, especially to that of human being. Its use for food and body hygiene purposes requires that it meets the norms of physicochemical and microbiological quality recommended by the World Health Organization. The aim of this work was to study the factors associated with the quality of drinking water in the commune of Adjarra in Benin in 2014. It was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study of the factors associated with the quality of drinking water in the commune of Adjarra in 2014. The population studied is made of two targets which are the primary targets (drinking water) and the secondary targets (the heads of households or their representative, hygiene and sanitation officials of the health center and the commune, the official of SONEB, the women’s groups and the chiefs of villages).

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